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Space ? Movs.World
Race to make laws in space before asteroid mining starts and there?s a ?new wild west?
Elon Musk Spills The Beans On SpaceX?s $100 Billion Market Value
NASA?s Super Guppy Arrives in California With Key Component for Artemis Moon Mission
Jeff Bezos Just Spent $5.5B to Be in Space for 4 Minutes. Here Are 7 Things That Money Could Help Solve.
Indonesia?s Twin Peaks
Who Is an Astronaut in the Age of Private Space Flights?
Northrop Grumman Shows Off New Astronaut Moon Buggy Even As NASA?s Artemis Mission Is In Doubt
Wearing a 1970s Spacesuit Was a Struggle
Education travel destinations the whole family will enjoy
A Seasonal Emerald in the Sahel

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                    [title] => Race to make laws in space before asteroid mining starts and there?s a ?new wild west?
                    [link] => https://movs.world/space/race-to-make-laws-in-space-before-asteroid-mining-starts-and-theres-a-new-wild-west/
                    [dc] => Array
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                            [creator] => Susan Hally
                        )

                    [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 16:01:59 +0000
                    [category] => SpaceasteroidLawsminingracestartsWestWild
                    [guid] => https://movs.world/space/race-to-make-laws-in-space-before-asteroid-mining-starts-and-theres-a-new-wild-west/
                    [description] => As yet, no-one has committed a crime in space – but someone came close in 2019. Then Summer Worden, the wife of NASA astronaut Anne McClain, claimed that the former US Army engineer had illegally hacked her bank account from a computer on the International Space Station. The claims were disproven, and the two women ... Read more
                    [content] => Array
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                            [encoded] => 

As yet, no-one has committed a crime in space – but someone came close in 2019.

Then Summer Worden, the wife of NASA astronaut Anne McClain, claimed that the former US Army engineer had illegally hacked her bank account from a computer on the International Space Station.

The claims were disproven, and the two women subsequently divorced. But with more and more people making their way into orbit every year it?s only a matter of time before the first outer-space crime is committed.

The first attempt to draft a set of laws governing space travellers dates back almost 30 years before the first manned space flight. A Czech legal expert published a book about the problems space travel might represent for lawyers.



Lawyers need to establish who owns the Moon before the first mines are built there

Most efforts at creating a universal set of laws for off-world activities have centred on property law and mineral rights ? for example, a NASA bid to capture an asteroid and place it in lunar orbit sparked a major debate about who owns celestial objects.

After all, with the value of some asteroids estimated to be in the trillions of dollars, it?s a question we need to resolve.

Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson has predicted that the Earth?s first trillionaire will be ?the person who exploits the natural resources? on them.



Space expert Neil deGrasse Tyson says asteroid mining will produce the world's first trillionaire
Space expert Neil deGrasse Tyson says asteroid mining will produce the world’s first trillionaire

For example, one massive iron asteroid that was probably once the core of a dead planet could make someone incredibly rich ? or end all life on Earth.

The asteroid, called 16 Psyche, is thought to contain deposits of iron worth around £8,000 quadrillion.

Theoretically, if 16 Psyche could be mined and its iron retrieved, the value of the metal could be divided between the world?s eight billion people to make every man, woman and child on the planet a billionaire.



Anti-satellite missiles skirt the fringes of laws against weapons in space
Anti-satellite missiles skirt the fringes of laws against weapons in space

Or, equally, any attempt to bring the multi-trillion-dollar space rock down to Earth could result in a planet-killing catastrophe on a par with the event that saw off the dinosaurs.

NASA are currently working with Elon Musk to design a probe that can land on 16 Psyche, remove a small section, and return it to the Earth for analysis.

There?s another set of international agreements covering the legality of weapons in space. A 1967 Outer Space Treaty signed by most of the major world powers bans military bases, weapons testing and military manoeuvres on other heavenly bodies.



Anne McClain was cleared of all charges
Anne McClain was cleared of all charges

However it doesn?t go as far as banning all military activity in space, and the recent anti-satellite weapons tests from Russia and China show that the law doesn?t really stretch very far beyond the Earth at all.

John Logsdon, founder of the Space Policy Institute and professor emeritus at George Washington University, says that there are no meaningful laws in space at all.

He said: ?The governing structure for space activities is way out of date and doesn?t reflect today’s realities in space.

?There are no rules. There?s no space traffic regime or control. [There are] thousands of objects in space – satellites and space debris. It?s a wild environment up there with things shooting around and no traffic management to make sure they don?t collide with one another.?

Paul Kostek, a space policy specialist from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers , says that the next phase of space exploration, with prospectors competing to claim the next valuable asteroid, threatens to turn space into a ?new wild west?.

?It really is the wild wild west, or in this case the wild wild space,’ he said. “What is all of that going to mean, how are people even going to manage space??

.

) [summary] => As yet, no-one has committed a crime in space – but someone came close in 2019. Then Summer Worden, the wife of NASA astronaut Anne McClain, claimed that the former US Army engineer had illegally hacked her bank account from a computer on the International Space Station. The claims were disproven, and the two women ... Read more [atom_content] =>

As yet, no-one has committed a crime in space – but someone came close in 2019.

Then Summer Worden, the wife of NASA astronaut Anne McClain, claimed that the former US Army engineer had illegally hacked her bank account from a computer on the International Space Station.

The claims were disproven, and the two women subsequently divorced. But with more and more people making their way into orbit every year it?s only a matter of time before the first outer-space crime is committed.

The first attempt to draft a set of laws governing space travellers dates back almost 30 years before the first manned space flight. A Czech legal expert published a book about the problems space travel might represent for lawyers.



Lawyers need to establish who owns the Moon before the first mines are built there

Most efforts at creating a universal set of laws for off-world activities have centred on property law and mineral rights ? for example, a NASA bid to capture an asteroid and place it in lunar orbit sparked a major debate about who owns celestial objects.

After all, with the value of some asteroids estimated to be in the trillions of dollars, it?s a question we need to resolve.

Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson has predicted that the Earth?s first trillionaire will be ?the person who exploits the natural resources? on them.



Space expert Neil deGrasse Tyson says asteroid mining will produce the world's first trillionaire
Space expert Neil deGrasse Tyson says asteroid mining will produce the world’s first trillionaire

For example, one massive iron asteroid that was probably once the core of a dead planet could make someone incredibly rich ? or end all life on Earth.

The asteroid, called 16 Psyche, is thought to contain deposits of iron worth around £8,000 quadrillion.

Theoretically, if 16 Psyche could be mined and its iron retrieved, the value of the metal could be divided between the world?s eight billion people to make every man, woman and child on the planet a billionaire.



Anti-satellite missiles skirt the fringes of laws against weapons in space
Anti-satellite missiles skirt the fringes of laws against weapons in space

Or, equally, any attempt to bring the multi-trillion-dollar space rock down to Earth could result in a planet-killing catastrophe on a par with the event that saw off the dinosaurs.

NASA are currently working with Elon Musk to design a probe that can land on 16 Psyche, remove a small section, and return it to the Earth for analysis.

There?s another set of international agreements covering the legality of weapons in space. A 1967 Outer Space Treaty signed by most of the major world powers bans military bases, weapons testing and military manoeuvres on other heavenly bodies.



Anne McClain was cleared of all charges
Anne McClain was cleared of all charges

However it doesn?t go as far as banning all military activity in space, and the recent anti-satellite weapons tests from Russia and China show that the law doesn?t really stretch very far beyond the Earth at all.

John Logsdon, founder of the Space Policy Institute and professor emeritus at George Washington University, says that there are no meaningful laws in space at all.

He said: ?The governing structure for space activities is way out of date and doesn?t reflect today’s realities in space.

?There are no rules. There?s no space traffic regime or control. [There are] thousands of objects in space – satellites and space debris. It?s a wild environment up there with things shooting around and no traffic management to make sure they don?t collide with one another.?

Paul Kostek, a space policy specialist from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers , says that the next phase of space exploration, with prospectors competing to claim the next valuable asteroid, threatens to turn space into a ?new wild west?.

?It really is the wild wild west, or in this case the wild wild space,’ he said. “What is all of that going to mean, how are people even going to manage space??

.

[date_timestamp] => 1638115319 ) [1] => Array ( [title] => Elon Musk Spills The Beans On SpaceX?s $100 Billion Market Value [link] => https://movs.world/space/elon-musk-spills-the-beans-on-spacexs-100-billion-market-value/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 15:31:02 +0000 [category] => SpaceBeansbillionElonmarketMuskSpaceXsSpills [guid] => https://movs.world/space/elon-musk-spills-the-beans-on-spacexs-100-billion-market-value/ [description] => Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s (SpaceX) chief executive officer Mr. Elon Musk has confirmed that his astronautic launch services provider is worth $100 billion in market capitalization. Reports of the valuation first surfaced last month, marking a significant increase in just a handful of months after SpaceX completed its latest funding round which saw it raise ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s (SpaceX) chief executive officer Mr. Elon Musk has confirmed that his astronautic launch services provider is worth $100 billion in market capitalization. Reports of the valuation first surfaced last month, marking a significant increase in just a handful of months after SpaceX completed its latest funding round which saw it raise more than a billion dollars in funding. The valuation is driven in large by the company’s internet subsidiary SpaceX, LLC, which is behind the mega small satellite constellation internet service Starlink.

Elon Musk Confirms SpaceX Is Worth More Than $100 Billion In Response To 3 Year Old Tweet

Musk’s comments were made on the social media platform Twitter, where he replied to a three year old Tweet that had criticized his companies for receiving government subsidies and grants. According to an article in the Los Angeles Times published in 2015, Musk’s electric vehicle company Tesla Inc, SpaceX and the now defunct solar energy products provider SolarCity Corp. had collectively received $4.9. billion in subsidies from the United States government.

SpaceX, Starlink Missing From DHS Space Security Working Group

This piece was used by a Twitter user to criticize Musk for allegedly pumping up stock prices by over-hyping his companies’ production capabilities. The executive responded back then by outlining that the article was “propaganda” published to counter the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) study outlining $5 trillion in subsidies given to fossil fuel companies. He added that $4.9 billion was a small fraction of the $80 billion combined market value of Tesla and SpaceX.

The latter comment was made in response to the accusation that since Musk did not allow government investments to be vested into shares, the government could not own a part of his companies.

Musk’s initial response in 2016, alleging that the Los Angeles Times was publishing propaganda. Image: Elon Musk/Twitter

Now, three years later after the initial exchange, the SpaceX chief replied to the same user outlining that his electric vehicle and space transportation companies have grown to have a combined market value of $1.2 trillion, resulting in the $4.9 billion of government support being less than 0.4% of their value.

According to him:

Combined Tesla+SpaceX market cap is now over $1.2T, which means ?$4.9B? is less than 0.4% of combined company value

8:16 AM · Nov 26, 2021·Twitter for iPhone

Taing a look at his latest tweet, it’s clear that SpaceX is now worth at least $100 billion, if not more. Musk shared this information before markets opened on Friday, after remaining closed due to the Thanksgiving holiday. By the close of trading on Wednesday, Tesla’s shares were trading at $1,116, and given the company’s one billion shares outstanding, this translates into a market value of $1.11 trillion.

Elon Musk Targeting Mars Rocket Orbital Test Flight In January, Along With A Dozen Flights

This implies that SpaceX is worth more than $100 billion, confirming earlier reports that a secondary share sale had seen the company’s share price swell to $560/share and its valuation to $100 billion.

Investment fund Baron Funds, through its fourth quarter 2020 quarterly report, outlined that it had purchased $26 million worth of preferred SpaceX shares, and according to CNBC, the company’s value at the time was $44 billion. Now, 15 months after, this has swollen to more than twice that amount according to Musk. As of September 2021, Baron Funds, through its various smaller funds, has invested $185 million into SpaceX and values them at more than twice that amount.

SpaceX raised $1.2 billion in its February 2021 funding round, and its filings with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) have also revealed Musk’s stake in the company. An August filing outlined that the executive owns 43.61% of the company, which should be worth $436 million if we use a $100 billion market value.

) [summary] => Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s (SpaceX) chief executive officer Mr. Elon Musk has confirmed that his astronautic launch services provider is worth $100 billion in market capitalization. Reports of the valuation first surfaced last month, marking a significant increase in just a handful of months after SpaceX completed its latest funding round which saw it raise ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s (SpaceX) chief executive officer Mr. Elon Musk has confirmed that his astronautic launch services provider is worth $100 billion in market capitalization. Reports of the valuation first surfaced last month, marking a significant increase in just a handful of months after SpaceX completed its latest funding round which saw it raise more than a billion dollars in funding. The valuation is driven in large by the company’s internet subsidiary SpaceX, LLC, which is behind the mega small satellite constellation internet service Starlink.

Elon Musk Confirms SpaceX Is Worth More Than $100 Billion In Response To 3 Year Old Tweet

Musk’s comments were made on the social media platform Twitter, where he replied to a three year old Tweet that had criticized his companies for receiving government subsidies and grants. According to an article in the Los Angeles Times published in 2015, Musk’s electric vehicle company Tesla Inc, SpaceX and the now defunct solar energy products provider SolarCity Corp. had collectively received $4.9. billion in subsidies from the United States government.

SpaceX, Starlink Missing From DHS Space Security Working Group

This piece was used by a Twitter user to criticize Musk for allegedly pumping up stock prices by over-hyping his companies’ production capabilities. The executive responded back then by outlining that the article was “propaganda” published to counter the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) study outlining $5 trillion in subsidies given to fossil fuel companies. He added that $4.9 billion was a small fraction of the $80 billion combined market value of Tesla and SpaceX.

The latter comment was made in response to the accusation that since Musk did not allow government investments to be vested into shares, the government could not own a part of his companies.

Musk’s initial response in 2016, alleging that the Los Angeles Times was publishing propaganda. Image: Elon Musk/Twitter

Now, three years later after the initial exchange, the SpaceX chief replied to the same user outlining that his electric vehicle and space transportation companies have grown to have a combined market value of $1.2 trillion, resulting in the $4.9 billion of government support being less than 0.4% of their value.

According to him:

Combined Tesla+SpaceX market cap is now over $1.2T, which means ?$4.9B? is less than 0.4% of combined company value

8:16 AM · Nov 26, 2021·Twitter for iPhone

Taing a look at his latest tweet, it’s clear that SpaceX is now worth at least $100 billion, if not more. Musk shared this information before markets opened on Friday, after remaining closed due to the Thanksgiving holiday. By the close of trading on Wednesday, Tesla’s shares were trading at $1,116, and given the company’s one billion shares outstanding, this translates into a market value of $1.11 trillion.

Elon Musk Targeting Mars Rocket Orbital Test Flight In January, Along With A Dozen Flights

This implies that SpaceX is worth more than $100 billion, confirming earlier reports that a secondary share sale had seen the company’s share price swell to $560/share and its valuation to $100 billion.

Investment fund Baron Funds, through its fourth quarter 2020 quarterly report, outlined that it had purchased $26 million worth of preferred SpaceX shares, and according to CNBC, the company’s value at the time was $44 billion. Now, 15 months after, this has swollen to more than twice that amount according to Musk. As of September 2021, Baron Funds, through its various smaller funds, has invested $185 million into SpaceX and values them at more than twice that amount.

SpaceX raised $1.2 billion in its February 2021 funding round, and its filings with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) have also revealed Musk’s stake in the company. An August filing outlined that the executive owns 43.61% of the company, which should be worth $436 million if we use a $100 billion market value.

[date_timestamp] => 1638113462 ) [2] => Array ( [title] => NASA?s Super Guppy Arrives in California With Key Component for Artemis Moon Mission [link] => https://movs.world/space/nasas-super-guppy-arrives-in-california-with-key-component-for-artemis-moon-mission/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 13:27:11 +0000 [category] => SpacearrivesArtemisCaliforniaComponentGuppykeymissionMoonNASAssuper [guid] => https://movs.world/space/nasas-super-guppy-arrives-in-california-with-key-component-for-artemis-moon-mission/ [description] => The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft taxies past Hangar One after landing at Moffett Federal Airfield. Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/Don Richey Crews transported the heat shield skin for a future mission of NASA?s Orion spacecraft ? via the agency?s Super Guppy oversize cargo transport aircraft ? to Moffett Federal Airfield on Nov. 9. The heat ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft taxies past Hangar One after landing at Moffett Federal Airfield. Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/Don Richey

Crews transported the heat shield skin for a future mission of NASA?s Orion spacecraft ? via the agency?s Super Guppy oversize cargo transport aircraft ? to Moffett Federal Airfield on Nov. 9. The heat shield skin for the Artemis IV mission, the third crewed mission to the Moon, is now at Moffett Federal Airfield near NASA?s Ames Research Center in California?s Silicon Valley, for the next phase of production.

Orion?s heat shield protects the spacecraft and the astronauts inside the capsule from the intense heat generated while re-entering Earth?s atmosphere. When the spacecraft re-enters at roughly 25,000 miles per hour, the heat shield will experience extreme temperatures at about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit, or about half as hot as the sun. The heat shield has an underlying titanium skeleton covered by a carbon fiber skin. More than 180 unique blocks are bonded to the heat shield?s skin and will slowly burn away as the spacecraft travels through Earth?s atmosphere during re-entry.

Artemis IV Orion Heat Shield Skin Super Guppy

The Artemis IV Orion heat shield skin is offloaded from the Aero Spacelines Super Guppy to the K Loader at Moffett Federal Airfield.
Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/Don Richey

The recently delivered heat shield skin will undergo heat- and pressure-treatment at Lockheed Martin?s facility in Sunnyvale, California. The heat shield skin is made up of many layers of carbon fabric that are activated by a resin. Once cured, the resin will first soften, then harden to consolidate the skin. The heat- and pressure-treatment will give the skin the necessary mechanical strength properties it needs for Orion?s thermal protection system.

Unlike other aircraft, the Super Guppy aircraft has a specially designed hinged nose that opens to an angle of 110 degrees so that cargo can be loaded and unloaded from its belly. The aircraft?s unique shape also allows it to carry bulky or heavy hardware that would not otherwise fit on traditional aircraft. At 16.5 feet in diameter, the Orion heat shield and its corresponding skin is the largest heat shield base ever developed for human spaceflight missions.

Ames oversees the development, analysis, and arc jet testing of the entry systems and spacecraft for NASA?s Artemis lunar missions. Through Artemis, NASA will land the first woman and first person of color on the lunar surface, conduct extensive operations on and around the Moon, and prepare for the first human mission to Mars.

) [summary] => The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft taxies past Hangar One after landing at Moffett Federal Airfield. Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/Don Richey Crews transported the heat shield skin for a future mission of NASA?s Orion spacecraft ? via the agency?s Super Guppy oversize cargo transport aircraft ? to Moffett Federal Airfield on Nov. 9. The heat ... Read more [atom_content] =>

The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft taxies past Hangar One after landing at Moffett Federal Airfield. Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/Don Richey

Crews transported the heat shield skin for a future mission of NASA?s Orion spacecraft ? via the agency?s Super Guppy oversize cargo transport aircraft ? to Moffett Federal Airfield on Nov. 9. The heat shield skin for the Artemis IV mission, the third crewed mission to the Moon, is now at Moffett Federal Airfield near NASA?s Ames Research Center in California?s Silicon Valley, for the next phase of production.

Orion?s heat shield protects the spacecraft and the astronauts inside the capsule from the intense heat generated while re-entering Earth?s atmosphere. When the spacecraft re-enters at roughly 25,000 miles per hour, the heat shield will experience extreme temperatures at about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit, or about half as hot as the sun. The heat shield has an underlying titanium skeleton covered by a carbon fiber skin. More than 180 unique blocks are bonded to the heat shield?s skin and will slowly burn away as the spacecraft travels through Earth?s atmosphere during re-entry.

Artemis IV Orion Heat Shield Skin Super Guppy

The Artemis IV Orion heat shield skin is offloaded from the Aero Spacelines Super Guppy to the K Loader at Moffett Federal Airfield.
Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/Don Richey

The recently delivered heat shield skin will undergo heat- and pressure-treatment at Lockheed Martin?s facility in Sunnyvale, California. The heat shield skin is made up of many layers of carbon fabric that are activated by a resin. Once cured, the resin will first soften, then harden to consolidate the skin. The heat- and pressure-treatment will give the skin the necessary mechanical strength properties it needs for Orion?s thermal protection system.

Unlike other aircraft, the Super Guppy aircraft has a specially designed hinged nose that opens to an angle of 110 degrees so that cargo can be loaded and unloaded from its belly. The aircraft?s unique shape also allows it to carry bulky or heavy hardware that would not otherwise fit on traditional aircraft. At 16.5 feet in diameter, the Orion heat shield and its corresponding skin is the largest heat shield base ever developed for human spaceflight missions.

Ames oversees the development, analysis, and arc jet testing of the entry systems and spacecraft for NASA?s Artemis lunar missions. Through Artemis, NASA will land the first woman and first person of color on the lunar surface, conduct extensive operations on and around the Moon, and prepare for the first human mission to Mars.

[date_timestamp] => 1638106031 ) [3] => Array ( [title] => Jeff Bezos Just Spent $5.5B to Be in Space for 4 Minutes. Here Are 7 Things That Money Could Help Solve. [link] => https://movs.world/space/jeff-bezos-just-spent-5-5b-to-be-in-space-for-4-minutes-here-are-7-things-that-money-could-help-solve/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 12:56:09 +0000 [category] => Space55BBezosJeffminutesmoneysolvespent [guid] => https://movs.world/space/jeff-bezos-just-spent-5-5b-to-be-in-space-for-4-minutes-here-are-7-things-that-money-could-help-solve/ [description] => Jeff Bezos just had his ?best day ever? after traveling 60 miles above Earth?s surface in a spaceship designed by his company Blue Origin, according to the Guardian. For roughly four minutes of weightlessness in suborbital space, the richest man alive spent around $5.5 billion. Bezos is worth approximately $205 billion, so paying for an ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Jeff Bezos just had his ?best day ever? after traveling 60 miles above Earth?s surface in a spaceship designed by his company Blue Origin, according to the Guardian.

For roughly four minutes of weightlessness in suborbital space, the richest man alive spent around $5.5 billion. Bezos is worth approximately $205 billion, so paying for an exclusive space flight didn?t really affect his day-to-day budgeting.

But outside the luxurious world of billionaires with their private jets, mansions, and super yachts, that kind of money would have extraordinary impacts. It could save millions of people from starvation, help to vaccinate the world against COVID-19, and deliver urgent aid to humanitarian crises.

As part of the Give While You Live campaign, Global CItizen is calling on the world?s billionaires to give 5% of their wealth annually to charitable causes that will help to achieve the United Nations? Global Goals. Bezos could eliminate more than half of the world?s extreme poverty and achieve the goals in low-income countries by himself.

But redirecting Blue Origin expenses is a good place to start. Here are seven problems that Bezos? space flight money could have helped solve.


1. Save 37.5 million people from starving

The World Food Programme recently challenged the billionaires competing to fly in space ? Bezos, Elon Musk, and Richard Branson ? to commit $6 billion to prevent 41 million people from starving this year. With $5.5 billion, Bezos could have saved 37.5 million people from starving.

2. Fully fund COVAX, securing vaccines for 2 billion people in low-income countries

COVAX is combating vaccine inequity by securing COVID-19 vaccine doses for vulnerable communities in low-income countries. Because of its status as a humanitarian effort, COVAX is able to secure doses for $1.60 each, compared to the market rate of up to $7.

The initiative aims to secure 2 billion doses by next year, and needs an estimated $2.6 billion to get there. Bezos could have funded this amount two times over, ensuring that people are protected from a deadly virus during a pandemic, instead of going to space.

3. Fully fund humanitarian efforts in Nigeria, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, Venezuela, Yemen, and Horn of Africa

There are dozens of humanitarian efforts underway around the world and nearly all of them are underfunded. Bezos could single-handedly work with the United Nations to fund every humanitarian effort in the world, preventing untold suffering in the process.

With the money used on Tuesday?s space flight, he could have funded urgent humanitarian interventions in Nigeria ($1 billion), The Democratic Republic of Congo ($2 billion), Afghanistan ($1.2 billion), Venezuela ($.7 billion), Yemen and the Horn of Africa ($.6 billion).

4. Fully fund the International Fund for Agricultural Development

The International Fund for Agricultural Development helps rural communities improve crop yields, develop entrepreneurial opportunities, increase incomes, adapt to climate change, and empower young people and women. The organization is currently $350 million short of its fundraising goal for its next period of programming, an amount that Bezos could have covered within the first 30 seconds of his suborbital flight.

5. Fully fund Education Cannot Wait

Education Cannot Wait provides education to children displaced by conflict, natural disasters, and other crises. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 3 billion children worldwide were displaced from the classroom and many of them risk never returning unless interventions are made. That?s why ECW is campaigning to close the $8.5 billion global education funding gap.

Bezos, who has donated to his alma mater in the past, could have funded ECW?s personal fundraising target of $1.8 billion nearly three times over instead of going to space, perhaps fostering a new generation of astronauts in the process.

6. Help countries adapt to climate change

Bezos? space flight had an enormous environmental impact, causing extreme air pollution and contributing to global warming. The recently retired founder of Amazon could have used the $5.5 billion to help countries invest in renewable energy, restore ecosystems that can act as carbon sinks, and make buildings more energy efficient.

To his credit, Bezos? Earth Fund has previously supported green organizations tackling environmental issues around the world. But the climate crisis demands hundreds of billions of dollars annually on a global scale. Bezos could set an example among his fellow billionaires by showing he cares more about the fate of this planet than others that have shown little to no ability to host life.

7. Plant up to 5 billion trees

Planting a tree can improve air and groundwater quality, absorb greenhouse gas emissions, reduce heat, provide food and shelter, and play a therapeutic role in people?s lives. Trees are magical and they only cost around $1 to $3 to plant, according to Nature.

Assuming scale brings down the cost, Bezos could have theoretically paid for 5.5 billion trees and helped a lot more people feel ?unbelievably good.?


Disclaimer: IFAD and ECW are partners of Global Citizen.


You can join the Global Citizen Live campaign to defeat poverty and defend the planet by taking action here, and become part of a movement powered by citizens around the world who are taking action together with governments, corporations, and philanthropists to make change.

) [summary] => Jeff Bezos just had his ?best day ever? after traveling 60 miles above Earth?s surface in a spaceship designed by his company Blue Origin, according to the Guardian. For roughly four minutes of weightlessness in suborbital space, the richest man alive spent around $5.5 billion. Bezos is worth approximately $205 billion, so paying for an ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Jeff Bezos just had his ?best day ever? after traveling 60 miles above Earth?s surface in a spaceship designed by his company Blue Origin, according to the Guardian.

For roughly four minutes of weightlessness in suborbital space, the richest man alive spent around $5.5 billion. Bezos is worth approximately $205 billion, so paying for an exclusive space flight didn?t really affect his day-to-day budgeting.

But outside the luxurious world of billionaires with their private jets, mansions, and super yachts, that kind of money would have extraordinary impacts. It could save millions of people from starvation, help to vaccinate the world against COVID-19, and deliver urgent aid to humanitarian crises.

As part of the Give While You Live campaign, Global CItizen is calling on the world?s billionaires to give 5% of their wealth annually to charitable causes that will help to achieve the United Nations? Global Goals. Bezos could eliminate more than half of the world?s extreme poverty and achieve the goals in low-income countries by himself.

But redirecting Blue Origin expenses is a good place to start. Here are seven problems that Bezos? space flight money could have helped solve.


1. Save 37.5 million people from starving

The World Food Programme recently challenged the billionaires competing to fly in space ? Bezos, Elon Musk, and Richard Branson ? to commit $6 billion to prevent 41 million people from starving this year. With $5.5 billion, Bezos could have saved 37.5 million people from starving.

2. Fully fund COVAX, securing vaccines for 2 billion people in low-income countries

COVAX is combating vaccine inequity by securing COVID-19 vaccine doses for vulnerable communities in low-income countries. Because of its status as a humanitarian effort, COVAX is able to secure doses for $1.60 each, compared to the market rate of up to $7.

The initiative aims to secure 2 billion doses by next year, and needs an estimated $2.6 billion to get there. Bezos could have funded this amount two times over, ensuring that people are protected from a deadly virus during a pandemic, instead of going to space.

3. Fully fund humanitarian efforts in Nigeria, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, Venezuela, Yemen, and Horn of Africa

There are dozens of humanitarian efforts underway around the world and nearly all of them are underfunded. Bezos could single-handedly work with the United Nations to fund every humanitarian effort in the world, preventing untold suffering in the process.

With the money used on Tuesday?s space flight, he could have funded urgent humanitarian interventions in Nigeria ($1 billion), The Democratic Republic of Congo ($2 billion), Afghanistan ($1.2 billion), Venezuela ($.7 billion), Yemen and the Horn of Africa ($.6 billion).

4. Fully fund the International Fund for Agricultural Development

The International Fund for Agricultural Development helps rural communities improve crop yields, develop entrepreneurial opportunities, increase incomes, adapt to climate change, and empower young people and women. The organization is currently $350 million short of its fundraising goal for its next period of programming, an amount that Bezos could have covered within the first 30 seconds of his suborbital flight.

5. Fully fund Education Cannot Wait

Education Cannot Wait provides education to children displaced by conflict, natural disasters, and other crises. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 3 billion children worldwide were displaced from the classroom and many of them risk never returning unless interventions are made. That?s why ECW is campaigning to close the $8.5 billion global education funding gap.

Bezos, who has donated to his alma mater in the past, could have funded ECW?s personal fundraising target of $1.8 billion nearly three times over instead of going to space, perhaps fostering a new generation of astronauts in the process.

6. Help countries adapt to climate change

Bezos? space flight had an enormous environmental impact, causing extreme air pollution and contributing to global warming. The recently retired founder of Amazon could have used the $5.5 billion to help countries invest in renewable energy, restore ecosystems that can act as carbon sinks, and make buildings more energy efficient.

To his credit, Bezos? Earth Fund has previously supported green organizations tackling environmental issues around the world. But the climate crisis demands hundreds of billions of dollars annually on a global scale. Bezos could set an example among his fellow billionaires by showing he cares more about the fate of this planet than others that have shown little to no ability to host life.

7. Plant up to 5 billion trees

Planting a tree can improve air and groundwater quality, absorb greenhouse gas emissions, reduce heat, provide food and shelter, and play a therapeutic role in people?s lives. Trees are magical and they only cost around $1 to $3 to plant, according to Nature.

Assuming scale brings down the cost, Bezos could have theoretically paid for 5.5 billion trees and helped a lot more people feel ?unbelievably good.?


Disclaimer: IFAD and ECW are partners of Global Citizen.


You can join the Global Citizen Live campaign to defeat poverty and defend the planet by taking action here, and become part of a movement powered by citizens around the world who are taking action together with governments, corporations, and philanthropists to make change.

[date_timestamp] => 1638104169 ) [4] => Array ( [title] => Indonesia?s Twin Peaks [link] => https://movs.world/space/indonesias-twin-peaks/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 10:51:55 +0000 [category] => SpaceIndonesiaspeakstwin [guid] => https://movs.world/space/indonesias-twin-peaks/ [description] => An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot this photograph of two neighboring stratovolcanoes on Java, the most populated island of Indonesia. Mount Sundoro and Mount Sumbing are two symmetrical, cone-shaped peaks in Central Java province that are part of a larger east to west chain of volcanoes. Both peaks rise more than 3,000 ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot this photograph of two neighboring stratovolcanoes on Java, the most populated island of Indonesia. Mount Sundoro and Mount Sumbing are two symmetrical, cone-shaped peaks in Central Java province that are part of a larger east to west chain of volcanoes. Both peaks rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level and are still active, though they have not erupted since 1730 (Sumbing) and 1971 (Sundoro).

The brighter zones encircling the bases of both volcanoes include areas of intensive agriculture; these contrast with the dark forests on the higher slopes. The peaks of Sumbing and Sundoro rise high enough that the rocky summits elevations reach above the tree line.

The rich volcanic soils surrounding the peaks are very fertile, providing productive farmland in this region of Central Java. The tropical climate of Indonesia also provides abundant rain and sunlight. The area?s main crop is rice, grown in irrigated fields. Other lowland crops include corn, sugarcane, and coffee.

Astronaut photograph ISS065-E-31847 was acquired on May 10, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 200 millimeters. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 65 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by Laura Phoebus, Jacobs, JETS Contract at NASA-JSC.

) [summary] => An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot this photograph of two neighboring stratovolcanoes on Java, the most populated island of Indonesia. Mount Sundoro and Mount Sumbing are two symmetrical, cone-shaped peaks in Central Java province that are part of a larger east to west chain of volcanoes. Both peaks rise more than 3,000 ... Read more [atom_content] =>

An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot this photograph of two neighboring stratovolcanoes on Java, the most populated island of Indonesia. Mount Sundoro and Mount Sumbing are two symmetrical, cone-shaped peaks in Central Java province that are part of a larger east to west chain of volcanoes. Both peaks rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level and are still active, though they have not erupted since 1730 (Sumbing) and 1971 (Sundoro).

The brighter zones encircling the bases of both volcanoes include areas of intensive agriculture; these contrast with the dark forests on the higher slopes. The peaks of Sumbing and Sundoro rise high enough that the rocky summits elevations reach above the tree line.

The rich volcanic soils surrounding the peaks are very fertile, providing productive farmland in this region of Central Java. The tropical climate of Indonesia also provides abundant rain and sunlight. The area?s main crop is rice, grown in irrigated fields. Other lowland crops include corn, sugarcane, and coffee.

Astronaut photograph ISS065-E-31847 was acquired on May 10, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 200 millimeters. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 65 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by Laura Phoebus, Jacobs, JETS Contract at NASA-JSC.

[date_timestamp] => 1638096715 ) [5] => Array ( [title] => Who Is an Astronaut in the Age of Private Space Flights? [link] => https://movs.world/space/who-is-an-astronaut-in-the-age-of-private-space-flights/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 10:21:36 +0000 [category] => SpaceAgeastronautflightsprivate [guid] => https://movs.world/space/who-is-an-astronaut-in-the-age-of-private-space-flights/ [description] => TIME Studios is producing the Netflix documentary series Countdown: Inspiration 4 Mission to Space, starting Sept. 6. On Sept. 15, if all goes according to plan, Jared Isaacman?the billionaire CEO of Shift4 Payments?and three other private citizens will strap into a SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft?all four seats paid for by Isaacman?and blast off for orbit ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

TIME Studios is producing the Netflix documentary series Countdown: Inspiration 4 Mission to Space, starting Sept. 6.

On Sept. 15, if all goes according to plan, Jared Isaacman?the billionaire CEO of Shift4 Payments?and three other private citizens will strap into a SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft?all four seats paid for by Isaacman?and blast off for orbit on the mission dubbed Inspiration4. Three days later they will return to Earth. Unlike most of the rest of us, they will have spent time off of the planet. But will that earn them the label of ?astronaut??

Time was, it was easy to recognize an astronaut. They were all test pilots, they wore silvery space suits and signature buzz cuts and they had perfect fly-boy names like Deke and Gus and Al and Gordo. That they were all white males was often overlooked in the fawning media coverage of the time, but that changed, happily if belatedly, as women and people of color joined the corps in later years.

Now things are changing again?fast. With the opening of the private space sector, all manner of people who don?t write the word ?astronaut? on the occupation line of their tax return are queuing up to fly. Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, both of which launched high-profile missions involving their respective founders Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson earlier this summer, aim to begin regularly carrying paying customers on brief, 11-minute suborbital flights soon. And SpaceX is selling seats not just to Isaacman and his Inspiration4 crew?the company, along with rival private firm Axiom Space, is also selling tickets to the International Space Station (ISS) beginning in January 2022.

Read more: What to know about the Inspiration4 mission

Civilians have flown into space before. Former Senator Bill Nelson, who was sworn in as administrator of NASA in May, finagled a junket for himself aboard a space shuttle flight in 1986, as did former Senator Jake Garn the year before. And a handful of people, including entrepreneur and video game developer Richard Garriott, have bought seats aboard Russian Soyuz spacecraft for trips to the ISS. But the current surge in private space flight is something much bigger?and likely only to grow. So, will the elite band of fewer than 600 people who have earned the title astronaut?or cosmonaut in Russia, or Taikonaut in China?suddenly become a rabble of thousands whose singular qualifying criterion was the disposable cash to buy a ticket and take a ride? That?s a question that has a lot of people wondering?and at least a few shrugging.

?I try not to get all wrapped around the word,? says Nicole Stott, a retired NASA astronaut, who twice flew to space and served a long-duration mission aboard the ISS. ?Maybe it?s just a question of achieving a presence in some place with whatever role you have when you?re there.?

Not everyone is so at ease with the matter. The ?some place? Stott mentions may be loosely described as space, but has always been more strictly defined as anything above the so-called Von Kármán line. That?s a boundary point 100 km (62 mi.) above Earth named for Hungarian-American engineer Theodore von Kármán, who helped determine the altitude at which aircraft no longer function and spacecraft become necessary. Cross that frontier, the original thinking went, and you earn your astronaut wings. That standard qualified not only the early space travelers from the U.S. and U.S.S.R. for the astronaut or cosmonaut honor, it also qualified the largely forgotten NASA pilot Joe Walker, who in 1963 flew an X-15 rocket plane to an altitude of 105.9 km (65.8 mi.). But Walker was exquisitely trained to do the work he did, as were all of the astronauts and cosmonauts of that era, and of every space era since. The same is not true of all of the paying customers clamoring to fly today.

?For me, personally, I don?t think the word ?astronaut? should be used for somebody who just gets to go as a passenger or, you know, has enough money to buy a seat,? says Andrew Chaikin, author of A Man on the Moon, one of the defining books about the Apollo program. ?I would propose a different title: ?space traveler.’?

?Think of the early days of ballooning,? adds James R. Hansen, author of First Man, the Life of Neil A. Armstrong. ?[Josef-Michel] Montgolfier was thought of as an aeronaut, but if he took up a passenger with him, that person didn?t get to be called one too.?

But what if the passenger helped fly the balloon? That business of pitching in is relevant in today?s commercial space context. Customers who fly aboard Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic?s spacecraft on their suborbital lob shots will well and truly be passengers, strapping passively into their seats and unbuckling only at the peak of their parabola, when they will have about three minutes to float about and take in the view. Then it?s time to put the tray tables up and buckle in for landing.

The SpaceX Crew Dragon that the Inspiration4 team will be flying aboard is similarly meant to be fully autonomous. But the crew is nonetheless undergoing rigorous training at SpaceX headquarters in Hawthorne, Calif., learning how to intervene if the automated systems get glitchy or in case of an emergency like a pressure leak or fire. It?s more or less the same training the professional astronauts who fly the Dragon go through.

?Anybody who has the responsibility on their shoulders, for their own safety and the safety of the others in the spacecraft, yeah, I?d probably say that crosses the [astronaut] threshold for me,? says Chaikin.

The question of terminology goes well beyond safety, even within the professional astronaut corps. Retired NASA astronaut Terry Virts, who flew twice in space and once commanded the ISS, points out that aboard the space shuttle, there were only two people who did any actual flying; the rest of the crew was typically made up of payload specialists or mission specialists, who focused either on conducting experiments or to seeing to whatever satellite or other cargo the shuttle was carrying to orbit. Yet nobody begrudged those crew members the astronaut label just because they never took the shuttle?s stick.

?Being a shuttle pilot was really the ultimate test for any pilot,? Virts says. ?But the rest of the crew certainly owned and earned the astronaut title too.?

Hansen agrees, and warns that playing with astronaut nomenclature risks not only denying the title to people who may deserve it, but stripping it from those who historically earned it. The original NASA Mercury astronauts, after all, often complained that their missions were overly automated, with much of the flight run by computer, and the astronauts themselves there mostly to observe and intervene if needed.

?Al Shepard [the first American in space] was kind of a passenger too,? Hansen says. ?I don?t think you change the rules now just so people don?t get called astronauts.?

Ultimately, the name games may all cease to matter. Montgolfier no doubt carried the title aeronaut?or ?air sailor??proudly. But by the strict definition of the term, today we?re all aeronauts if we spend 15 minutes aloft in a hot air balloon at a county fair. We just no longer think of it that way.

?I think it?s entirely possible that as more and more people go into space?first into low-Earth orbit and then to the moon?the word astronaut will simply go away,? says Chaikin. ?It will just fall out of use.?

For people dreaming of the great democratization of space, that development is one devoutly to be wished. For those still transported by the romance of space, the glamour of the star sailor will be devoutly missed.

TIME Studios is producing the Netflix documentary series Countdown: Inspiration 4 Mission to Space, starting Sept. 6.

Read More About the Inspiration4 Mission:

More Must-Read Stories From TIME


Write to Jeffrey Kluger at jeffrey.kluger@time.com.

) [summary] => TIME Studios is producing the Netflix documentary series Countdown: Inspiration 4 Mission to Space, starting Sept. 6. On Sept. 15, if all goes according to plan, Jared Isaacman?the billionaire CEO of Shift4 Payments?and three other private citizens will strap into a SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft?all four seats paid for by Isaacman?and blast off for orbit ... Read more [atom_content] =>

TIME Studios is producing the Netflix documentary series Countdown: Inspiration 4 Mission to Space, starting Sept. 6.

On Sept. 15, if all goes according to plan, Jared Isaacman?the billionaire CEO of Shift4 Payments?and three other private citizens will strap into a SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft?all four seats paid for by Isaacman?and blast off for orbit on the mission dubbed Inspiration4. Three days later they will return to Earth. Unlike most of the rest of us, they will have spent time off of the planet. But will that earn them the label of ?astronaut??

Time was, it was easy to recognize an astronaut. They were all test pilots, they wore silvery space suits and signature buzz cuts and they had perfect fly-boy names like Deke and Gus and Al and Gordo. That they were all white males was often overlooked in the fawning media coverage of the time, but that changed, happily if belatedly, as women and people of color joined the corps in later years.

Now things are changing again?fast. With the opening of the private space sector, all manner of people who don?t write the word ?astronaut? on the occupation line of their tax return are queuing up to fly. Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, both of which launched high-profile missions involving their respective founders Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson earlier this summer, aim to begin regularly carrying paying customers on brief, 11-minute suborbital flights soon. And SpaceX is selling seats not just to Isaacman and his Inspiration4 crew?the company, along with rival private firm Axiom Space, is also selling tickets to the International Space Station (ISS) beginning in January 2022.

Read more: What to know about the Inspiration4 mission

Civilians have flown into space before. Former Senator Bill Nelson, who was sworn in as administrator of NASA in May, finagled a junket for himself aboard a space shuttle flight in 1986, as did former Senator Jake Garn the year before. And a handful of people, including entrepreneur and video game developer Richard Garriott, have bought seats aboard Russian Soyuz spacecraft for trips to the ISS. But the current surge in private space flight is something much bigger?and likely only to grow. So, will the elite band of fewer than 600 people who have earned the title astronaut?or cosmonaut in Russia, or Taikonaut in China?suddenly become a rabble of thousands whose singular qualifying criterion was the disposable cash to buy a ticket and take a ride? That?s a question that has a lot of people wondering?and at least a few shrugging.

?I try not to get all wrapped around the word,? says Nicole Stott, a retired NASA astronaut, who twice flew to space and served a long-duration mission aboard the ISS. ?Maybe it?s just a question of achieving a presence in some place with whatever role you have when you?re there.?

Not everyone is so at ease with the matter. The ?some place? Stott mentions may be loosely described as space, but has always been more strictly defined as anything above the so-called Von Kármán line. That?s a boundary point 100 km (62 mi.) above Earth named for Hungarian-American engineer Theodore von Kármán, who helped determine the altitude at which aircraft no longer function and spacecraft become necessary. Cross that frontier, the original thinking went, and you earn your astronaut wings. That standard qualified not only the early space travelers from the U.S. and U.S.S.R. for the astronaut or cosmonaut honor, it also qualified the largely forgotten NASA pilot Joe Walker, who in 1963 flew an X-15 rocket plane to an altitude of 105.9 km (65.8 mi.). But Walker was exquisitely trained to do the work he did, as were all of the astronauts and cosmonauts of that era, and of every space era since. The same is not true of all of the paying customers clamoring to fly today.

?For me, personally, I don?t think the word ?astronaut? should be used for somebody who just gets to go as a passenger or, you know, has enough money to buy a seat,? says Andrew Chaikin, author of A Man on the Moon, one of the defining books about the Apollo program. ?I would propose a different title: ?space traveler.’?

?Think of the early days of ballooning,? adds James R. Hansen, author of First Man, the Life of Neil A. Armstrong. ?[Josef-Michel] Montgolfier was thought of as an aeronaut, but if he took up a passenger with him, that person didn?t get to be called one too.?

But what if the passenger helped fly the balloon? That business of pitching in is relevant in today?s commercial space context. Customers who fly aboard Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic?s spacecraft on their suborbital lob shots will well and truly be passengers, strapping passively into their seats and unbuckling only at the peak of their parabola, when they will have about three minutes to float about and take in the view. Then it?s time to put the tray tables up and buckle in for landing.

The SpaceX Crew Dragon that the Inspiration4 team will be flying aboard is similarly meant to be fully autonomous. But the crew is nonetheless undergoing rigorous training at SpaceX headquarters in Hawthorne, Calif., learning how to intervene if the automated systems get glitchy or in case of an emergency like a pressure leak or fire. It?s more or less the same training the professional astronauts who fly the Dragon go through.

?Anybody who has the responsibility on their shoulders, for their own safety and the safety of the others in the spacecraft, yeah, I?d probably say that crosses the [astronaut] threshold for me,? says Chaikin.

The question of terminology goes well beyond safety, even within the professional astronaut corps. Retired NASA astronaut Terry Virts, who flew twice in space and once commanded the ISS, points out that aboard the space shuttle, there were only two people who did any actual flying; the rest of the crew was typically made up of payload specialists or mission specialists, who focused either on conducting experiments or to seeing to whatever satellite or other cargo the shuttle was carrying to orbit. Yet nobody begrudged those crew members the astronaut label just because they never took the shuttle?s stick.

?Being a shuttle pilot was really the ultimate test for any pilot,? Virts says. ?But the rest of the crew certainly owned and earned the astronaut title too.?

Hansen agrees, and warns that playing with astronaut nomenclature risks not only denying the title to people who may deserve it, but stripping it from those who historically earned it. The original NASA Mercury astronauts, after all, often complained that their missions were overly automated, with much of the flight run by computer, and the astronauts themselves there mostly to observe and intervene if needed.

?Al Shepard [the first American in space] was kind of a passenger too,? Hansen says. ?I don?t think you change the rules now just so people don?t get called astronauts.?

Ultimately, the name games may all cease to matter. Montgolfier no doubt carried the title aeronaut?or ?air sailor??proudly. But by the strict definition of the term, today we?re all aeronauts if we spend 15 minutes aloft in a hot air balloon at a county fair. We just no longer think of it that way.

?I think it?s entirely possible that as more and more people go into space?first into low-Earth orbit and then to the moon?the word astronaut will simply go away,? says Chaikin. ?It will just fall out of use.?

For people dreaming of the great democratization of space, that development is one devoutly to be wished. For those still transported by the romance of space, the glamour of the star sailor will be devoutly missed.

TIME Studios is producing the Netflix documentary series Countdown: Inspiration 4 Mission to Space, starting Sept. 6.

Read More About the Inspiration4 Mission:

More Must-Read Stories From TIME


Write to Jeffrey Kluger at jeffrey.kluger@time.com.

[date_timestamp] => 1638094896 ) [6] => Array ( [title] => Northrop Grumman Shows Off New Astronaut Moon Buggy Even As NASA?s Artemis Mission Is In Doubt [link] => https://movs.world/space/northrop-grumman-shows-off-new-astronaut-moon-buggy-even-as-nasas-artemis-mission-is-in-doubt/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 08:48:28 +0000 [category] => SpaceArtemisastronautBuggydoubtGrummanmissionMoonNASAsNorthropshows [guid] => https://movs.world/space/northrop-grumman-shows-off-new-astronaut-moon-buggy-even-as-nasas-artemis-mission-is-in-doubt/ [description] => The timeframe for NASA?s return to the moon is in question, but when it does, it will have to decide what it wants its astronauts to cruise around the lunar surface in. Northrop Grumman announced on Tuesday that it is designing a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) to transport the agency?s Artemis astronauts around the moon. ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

The timeframe for NASA?s return to the moon is in question, but when it does, it will have to decide what it wants its astronauts to cruise around the lunar surface in.

Northrop Grumman announced on Tuesday that it is designing a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) to transport the agency?s Artemis astronauts around the moon.

It is teaming with several different companies, including AVL, tiremaker Michelin, Lunar Outpost and Intuitive Machines to design the rover.

Scroll down for video

The announcement comes just hours after a government watchdog said NASA will miss its target for landing humans on the moon in late 2024 by ?several years.?

Northrop Grumman announced on Tuesday that it is designing a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) to transport the agency?s Artemis astronauts around the moon

A report from NASA?s inspector general said cost overruns and the time needed to proper testing were the likely reasons NASA would miss the target date to return to the moon.

?Given the time needed to develop and fully test the HLS and new spacesuits, we project NASA will exceed its current timetable for landing humans on the Moon in late 2024 by several years,? the IG wrote in its report, issued on Monday.

The report also notes that NASA is not properly estimating all costs for the Artemis program and could spend as much as $93 billion between fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2025, when taking into account the $25 billion needed for missions beyond Artemis III.

The watchdog audit came just days after NASA itself said that costs and litigation (like the Blue Origin lawsuit over the lunar lander contract) would push back the Artemis mission that would send the first woman and person of color to the moon.

A report from NASA's inspector general said cost overruns and the time needed to proper testing were the likely reasons NASA would miss the target date to return to the moon

A report from NASA?s inspector general said cost overruns and the time needed to proper testing were the likely reasons NASA would miss the target date to return to the moon

Northrop Grumman is designing the LTV after NASA asked private companies in August to build vehicles for the Artemis program and transport astronauts around the lunar south pole.

NASA hopes to build a base camp in the area and it wants the vehicle to last at least 10 years, spanning multiple Artemis missions.

?Together with our teammates, we will provide NASA with an agile and affordable vehicle design to greatly enhance human and robotic exploration of the lunar surface to further enable a sustainable human presence on the moon and, ultimately, Mars,? Steve Krein, vice president of civil and commercial space in Northrop Grumman?s tactical space systems division, said in a statement.

As part of the project, AVL will use its expertise in battery electric vehicles, autonomous driving and ?propulsion solutions to make lunar surface mobility a reality.?

Intuitive Machines, which has worked with NASA before via its Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative, will build on those capabilities.

The company?s Nova-D spacecraft ?utilizes four liquid methane/oxygen engines from the mature Nova-C program for precision landing on the moon,? Northrop Grumman wrote in its statement.

Lunar Outpost will provide its knowledge in ?rapid innovation, dust mitigation and thermal technologies from the development of its MAPP rover to help deliver a robust, cutting-edge LTV solution.?

Michelin, which has worked with NASA on previous lunar rovers, will use its prior knowledge to design ?an airless tire solution for the LTV.?

In May, Lockheed Martin and GM announced they had been asked by NASA to create a new electric, autonomous lunar rover (pictured)

In May, Lockheed Martin and GM announced they had been asked by NASA to create a new electric, autonomous lunar rover (pictured)

In May, Lockheed Martin and GM announced they had been asked by NASA to create a new electric, autonomous lunar rover.

The rover will use GM?s autonomous driving technology and allow it to go ?significantly farther? than the ones the auto maker worked on during the Apollo program, some 50 years ago.

The last Artemis update was released on October 22, which said NASA?s uncrewed Artemis 1 mission would not launch until February 2022, but the delay still kept the agency on track for the 2024 human lunar landing.

The Artemis I mission will see the Orion spacecraft (pictured), the SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy combine to launch the Orion 280,000 miles past Earth around the moon over the course of a three-week mission

The Artemis I mission will see the Orion spacecraft (pictured), the SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy combine to launch the Orion 280,000 miles past Earth around the moon over the course of a three-week mission

The Artemis I mission will see the Orion spacecraft, the SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy combine to launch the Orion 280,000 miles past Earth around the moon over the course of a three-week mission.

This spacecraft, primarily built by Lockheed Martin, will stay in space ?longer than any ship for astronauts has done without docking to a space station and return home faster and hotter than ever before,? NASA has said previously.

In June, NASA finished assembling the $18.6 billion SLS rocket, after having announced the project in 2011.

However, NASA said it is still targeting the February 2022 deadline ? and will keep the public up-to-date on developments.

The Artemis II mission plans to send four astronauts in the first crewed Orion capsule into a lunar flyby for a maximum of 21 days.

Both missions are tests flights to demonstrate the technology and abilities of Orion, SLS and the Artemis mission before NASA puts human boots back on the moon.

The Artemis mission will be the first to land humans on the moon since NASA?s Apollo 17 in 1972.

NASA will land the first woman and next man on the moon in 2024 as part of the Artemis mission

Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the moon in Greek mythology.

NASA has chosen her to personify its path back to the moon, which will see astronauts return to the lunar surface by 2024 ?  including the first woman and the next man.

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars.

Artemis 1 will be the first integrated flight test of NASA?s deep space exploration system: the Orion spacecraft, Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the ground systems at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Artemis 1 will be an uncrewed flight that will provide a foundation for human deep space exploration, and demonstrate our commitment and capability to extend human existence to the moon and beyond.

During this flight, the spacecraft will launch on the most powerful rocket in the world and fly farther than any spacecraft built for humans has ever flown.

It will travel 280,000 miles (450,600 km) from Earth, thousands of miles beyond the moon over the course of about a three-week mission.

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. This graphic explains the various stages of the mission

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. This graphic explains the various stages of the mission

Orion will stay in space longer than any ship for astronauts has done without docking to a space station and return home faster and hotter than ever before.

With this first exploration mission, NASA is leading the next steps of human exploration into deep space where astronauts will build and begin testing the systems near the moon needed for lunar surface missions and exploration to other destinations farther from Earth, including Mars.

The will take crew on a different trajectory and test Orion?s critical systems with humans aboard.

Together, Orion, SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy will be able to meet the most challenging crew and cargo mission needs in deep space.

Eventually NASA seeks to establish a sustainable human presence on the moon by 2028 as a result of the Artemis mission.

The space agency hopes this colony will uncover new scientific discoveries, demonstrate new technological advancements and lay the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy.

) [summary] => The timeframe for NASA?s return to the moon is in question, but when it does, it will have to decide what it wants its astronauts to cruise around the lunar surface in. Northrop Grumman announced on Tuesday that it is designing a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) to transport the agency?s Artemis astronauts around the moon. ... Read more [atom_content] =>

The timeframe for NASA?s return to the moon is in question, but when it does, it will have to decide what it wants its astronauts to cruise around the lunar surface in.

Northrop Grumman announced on Tuesday that it is designing a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) to transport the agency?s Artemis astronauts around the moon.

It is teaming with several different companies, including AVL, tiremaker Michelin, Lunar Outpost and Intuitive Machines to design the rover.

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The announcement comes just hours after a government watchdog said NASA will miss its target for landing humans on the moon in late 2024 by ?several years.?

Northrop Grumman announced on Tuesday that it is designing a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) to transport the agency?s Artemis astronauts around the moon

A report from NASA?s inspector general said cost overruns and the time needed to proper testing were the likely reasons NASA would miss the target date to return to the moon.

?Given the time needed to develop and fully test the HLS and new spacesuits, we project NASA will exceed its current timetable for landing humans on the Moon in late 2024 by several years,? the IG wrote in its report, issued on Monday.

The report also notes that NASA is not properly estimating all costs for the Artemis program and could spend as much as $93 billion between fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2025, when taking into account the $25 billion needed for missions beyond Artemis III.

The watchdog audit came just days after NASA itself said that costs and litigation (like the Blue Origin lawsuit over the lunar lander contract) would push back the Artemis mission that would send the first woman and person of color to the moon.

A report from NASA's inspector general said cost overruns and the time needed to proper testing were the likely reasons NASA would miss the target date to return to the moon

A report from NASA?s inspector general said cost overruns and the time needed to proper testing were the likely reasons NASA would miss the target date to return to the moon

Northrop Grumman is designing the LTV after NASA asked private companies in August to build vehicles for the Artemis program and transport astronauts around the lunar south pole.

NASA hopes to build a base camp in the area and it wants the vehicle to last at least 10 years, spanning multiple Artemis missions.

?Together with our teammates, we will provide NASA with an agile and affordable vehicle design to greatly enhance human and robotic exploration of the lunar surface to further enable a sustainable human presence on the moon and, ultimately, Mars,? Steve Krein, vice president of civil and commercial space in Northrop Grumman?s tactical space systems division, said in a statement.

As part of the project, AVL will use its expertise in battery electric vehicles, autonomous driving and ?propulsion solutions to make lunar surface mobility a reality.?

Intuitive Machines, which has worked with NASA before via its Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative, will build on those capabilities.

The company?s Nova-D spacecraft ?utilizes four liquid methane/oxygen engines from the mature Nova-C program for precision landing on the moon,? Northrop Grumman wrote in its statement.

Lunar Outpost will provide its knowledge in ?rapid innovation, dust mitigation and thermal technologies from the development of its MAPP rover to help deliver a robust, cutting-edge LTV solution.?

Michelin, which has worked with NASA on previous lunar rovers, will use its prior knowledge to design ?an airless tire solution for the LTV.?

In May, Lockheed Martin and GM announced they had been asked by NASA to create a new electric, autonomous lunar rover (pictured)

In May, Lockheed Martin and GM announced they had been asked by NASA to create a new electric, autonomous lunar rover (pictured)

In May, Lockheed Martin and GM announced they had been asked by NASA to create a new electric, autonomous lunar rover.

The rover will use GM?s autonomous driving technology and allow it to go ?significantly farther? than the ones the auto maker worked on during the Apollo program, some 50 years ago.

The last Artemis update was released on October 22, which said NASA?s uncrewed Artemis 1 mission would not launch until February 2022, but the delay still kept the agency on track for the 2024 human lunar landing.

The Artemis I mission will see the Orion spacecraft (pictured), the SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy combine to launch the Orion 280,000 miles past Earth around the moon over the course of a three-week mission

The Artemis I mission will see the Orion spacecraft (pictured), the SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy combine to launch the Orion 280,000 miles past Earth around the moon over the course of a three-week mission

The Artemis I mission will see the Orion spacecraft, the SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy combine to launch the Orion 280,000 miles past Earth around the moon over the course of a three-week mission.

This spacecraft, primarily built by Lockheed Martin, will stay in space ?longer than any ship for astronauts has done without docking to a space station and return home faster and hotter than ever before,? NASA has said previously.

In June, NASA finished assembling the $18.6 billion SLS rocket, after having announced the project in 2011.

However, NASA said it is still targeting the February 2022 deadline ? and will keep the public up-to-date on developments.

The Artemis II mission plans to send four astronauts in the first crewed Orion capsule into a lunar flyby for a maximum of 21 days.

Both missions are tests flights to demonstrate the technology and abilities of Orion, SLS and the Artemis mission before NASA puts human boots back on the moon.

The Artemis mission will be the first to land humans on the moon since NASA?s Apollo 17 in 1972.

NASA will land the first woman and next man on the moon in 2024 as part of the Artemis mission

Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the moon in Greek mythology.

NASA has chosen her to personify its path back to the moon, which will see astronauts return to the lunar surface by 2024 ?  including the first woman and the next man.

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars.

Artemis 1 will be the first integrated flight test of NASA?s deep space exploration system: the Orion spacecraft, Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the ground systems at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Artemis 1 will be an uncrewed flight that will provide a foundation for human deep space exploration, and demonstrate our commitment and capability to extend human existence to the moon and beyond.

During this flight, the spacecraft will launch on the most powerful rocket in the world and fly farther than any spacecraft built for humans has ever flown.

It will travel 280,000 miles (450,600 km) from Earth, thousands of miles beyond the moon over the course of about a three-week mission.

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. This graphic explains the various stages of the mission

Artemis 1, formerly Exploration Mission-1, is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions that will enable human exploration to the moon and Mars. This graphic explains the various stages of the mission

Orion will stay in space longer than any ship for astronauts has done without docking to a space station and return home faster and hotter than ever before.

With this first exploration mission, NASA is leading the next steps of human exploration into deep space where astronauts will build and begin testing the systems near the moon needed for lunar surface missions and exploration to other destinations farther from Earth, including Mars.

The will take crew on a different trajectory and test Orion?s critical systems with humans aboard.

Together, Orion, SLS and the ground systems at Kennedy will be able to meet the most challenging crew and cargo mission needs in deep space.

Eventually NASA seeks to establish a sustainable human presence on the moon by 2028 as a result of the Artemis mission.

The space agency hopes this colony will uncover new scientific discoveries, demonstrate new technological advancements and lay the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy.

[date_timestamp] => 1638089308 ) [7] => Array ( [title] => Wearing a 1970s Spacesuit Was a Struggle [link] => https://movs.world/space/wearing-a-1970s-spacesuit-was-a-struggle/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 08:17:16 +0000 [category] => Space1970sspacesuitstrugglewearing [guid] => https://movs.world/space/wearing-a-1970s-spacesuit-was-a-struggle/ [description] => Astronaut Dr Jessica Meir described the challenges of wearing a spacesuit from the 1970s in 2019. It’s “incredibly cumbersome,” and “pressurized,” she told Insider in an exclusive interview. She said balancing and moving around in an oversized spacesuit was particularly difficult. Loading Something is loading. Wearing a spacesuit in zero gravity is hard ? but ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Wearing a spacesuit in zero gravity is hard ? but it’s even more difficult if it doesn’t fit you.

That’s according to Dr Jessica Meir, who took part in a historic all-female spacewalk at the International Space Station, alongside Christina Koch, in 2019.

Spacewalks, previously termed extravehicular activities, are customary operations but they pose a great risk to astronauts. During a spacewalk, a pair of astronauts put on spacesuits, step outside of the International Space Station, and work together in a vacuum of space, Insider previously reported.

Spacesuit fitting is crucial for astronauts because if there’s too much room inside them, it can make the work more arduous or even downright deadly.

In an exclusive interview with Insider, Meir said the spacesuits that NASA developed in the 1970s are the same spacesuits that the agency’s astronauts wear now.

“For everybody, the spacesuits are incredibly cumbersome,” she said. “They’re pressurized, so they’re difficult to move around in.”

astronaut Hazzaa al-Mansoori, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka and US astronaut Jessica Meir report

Astronaut Hazzaa al-Mansoori (left), Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka and US astronaut Jessica Meir (right).

Photo by VYACHESLAV OSELEDKO/AFP via Getty Images


Back in the 1970s, astronauts were mainly larger men, Meir said. The range of spacesuit sizes was limited because of budget constraints, so they were made to fit the majority of the astronaut population size.

But the sizing issue isn’t gender-related, she said. “It’s an overall size thing.”

“The population didn’t really look like me,” Meir said, adding that the smallest size is a medium. “The tallest guy in my class wears medium and I’m wearing the same size.”

Meir, who is also a physiologist, said it’s more challenging for smaller astronauts like herself to learn how to maneuver in the spacesuit, which doesn’t fit them correctly.

Balancing is a bit more difficult, she said.

But the challenges that come with wearing an oversized spacesuit unearthed a mastery for Meir. “It helps you be a better spacewalker because you’ve had to use your brain and be a little bit creative in terms of solving the problems,” she said.

For example, Meir highlighted the importance of using leverage in space instead of simply reaching over and grabbing something.

Jessica Meir

Balancing in an oversized spacesuit in zero gravity was a particular challenge for astronaut Jessica Meir.

VYACHESLAV OSELEDKO/AFP via Getty Images


Spacesuit fittings are difficult because microgravity results in astronauts becoming taller in space, Insider previously reported. Astronaut Anne McClain, who also participated in the all-female spacewalk, previously stated she grew two inches taller in space than when she launched.

The suits are incredibly expensive, too. NASA’s current fleet of spacesuits reportedly cost between $15 million and $22 million in 1974. Today, that is the equivalent of $150 million, Insider’s Andy Ash reported.

They’re expensive because they have to protect an astronaut from the vacuum of space and from radiation coming from the sun and other bodies. They also need to offer protection against particles that are moving up to 18,000 miles an hour and could pierce the suit.

And while there may be a budget to create something new, engineers need to spend a lot of time developing suits alongside making sure that they’re tested and certified, Meir said. “There’s just a very long lead time,” she added.

But progress is being made and new spacesuits are in development, according to Meir. “The new suits will be fitting a much wider range of people from the 99th percentile and they’ll have a lot more mobility inherent in them,” she said.

) [summary] => Astronaut Dr Jessica Meir described the challenges of wearing a spacesuit from the 1970s in 2019. It’s “incredibly cumbersome,” and “pressurized,” she told Insider in an exclusive interview. She said balancing and moving around in an oversized spacesuit was particularly difficult. Loading Something is loading. Wearing a spacesuit in zero gravity is hard ? but ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Wearing a spacesuit in zero gravity is hard ? but it’s even more difficult if it doesn’t fit you.

That’s according to Dr Jessica Meir, who took part in a historic all-female spacewalk at the International Space Station, alongside Christina Koch, in 2019.

Spacewalks, previously termed extravehicular activities, are customary operations but they pose a great risk to astronauts. During a spacewalk, a pair of astronauts put on spacesuits, step outside of the International Space Station, and work together in a vacuum of space, Insider previously reported.

Spacesuit fitting is crucial for astronauts because if there’s too much room inside them, it can make the work more arduous or even downright deadly.

In an exclusive interview with Insider, Meir said the spacesuits that NASA developed in the 1970s are the same spacesuits that the agency’s astronauts wear now.

“For everybody, the spacesuits are incredibly cumbersome,” she said. “They’re pressurized, so they’re difficult to move around in.”

astronaut Hazzaa al-Mansoori, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka and US astronaut Jessica Meir report

Astronaut Hazzaa al-Mansoori (left), Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka and US astronaut Jessica Meir (right).

Photo by VYACHESLAV OSELEDKO/AFP via Getty Images


Back in the 1970s, astronauts were mainly larger men, Meir said. The range of spacesuit sizes was limited because of budget constraints, so they were made to fit the majority of the astronaut population size.

But the sizing issue isn’t gender-related, she said. “It’s an overall size thing.”

“The population didn’t really look like me,” Meir said, adding that the smallest size is a medium. “The tallest guy in my class wears medium and I’m wearing the same size.”

Meir, who is also a physiologist, said it’s more challenging for smaller astronauts like herself to learn how to maneuver in the spacesuit, which doesn’t fit them correctly.

Balancing is a bit more difficult, she said.

But the challenges that come with wearing an oversized spacesuit unearthed a mastery for Meir. “It helps you be a better spacewalker because you’ve had to use your brain and be a little bit creative in terms of solving the problems,” she said.

For example, Meir highlighted the importance of using leverage in space instead of simply reaching over and grabbing something.

Jessica Meir

Balancing in an oversized spacesuit in zero gravity was a particular challenge for astronaut Jessica Meir.

VYACHESLAV OSELEDKO/AFP via Getty Images


Spacesuit fittings are difficult because microgravity results in astronauts becoming taller in space, Insider previously reported. Astronaut Anne McClain, who also participated in the all-female spacewalk, previously stated she grew two inches taller in space than when she launched.

The suits are incredibly expensive, too. NASA’s current fleet of spacesuits reportedly cost between $15 million and $22 million in 1974. Today, that is the equivalent of $150 million, Insider’s Andy Ash reported.

They’re expensive because they have to protect an astronaut from the vacuum of space and from radiation coming from the sun and other bodies. They also need to offer protection against particles that are moving up to 18,000 miles an hour and could pierce the suit.

And while there may be a budget to create something new, engineers need to spend a lot of time developing suits alongside making sure that they’re tested and certified, Meir said. “There’s just a very long lead time,” she added.

But progress is being made and new spacesuits are in development, according to Meir. “The new suits will be fitting a much wider range of people from the 99th percentile and they’ll have a lot more mobility inherent in them,” she said.

[date_timestamp] => 1638087436 ) [8] => Array ( [title] => Education travel destinations the whole family will enjoy [link] => https://movs.world/space/education-travel-destinations-the-whole-family-will-enjoy/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 07:46:18 +0000 [category] => Spacedestinationseducationenjoyfamilytravel [guid] => https://movs.world/space/education-travel-destinations-the-whole-family-will-enjoy/ [description] => Supercharge your family?s brain power with a visit to these dynamic destinations. Here are five compelling places to consider. U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, Ala.. Do you have what it takes to be a space explorer? Visit this other-worldly technology center to experience the Discovery Shuttle simulator, feel three times the force of gravity ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Supercharge your family?s brain power with a visit to these dynamic destinations. Here are five compelling places to consider.

U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, Ala..

Do you have what it takes to be a space explorer? Visit this other-worldly technology center to experience the Discovery Shuttle simulator, feel three times the force of gravity in the G-Force Accelerator and to peruse one of the largest collections of rockets and space memorabilia on display anywhere in the world.

You can also discover what it takes to be among the world?s great record holders. Check out the center?s latest traveling exhibition, The Science of Guinness World Records, to uncover the stories of those whose talent and tenacity enabled them to best the longest, farthest, deepest, highest records on the planet.

Contact rocketcenter.com

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

Encouraging curiosity and celebrating questions, this is the place to see a German submarine, understand how tornadoes and avalanches happen and explore the structure of the eye in a hands-on lab environment.

Discover the mathematical patterns that surround us every day in the natural world ? from the delicate, nested spirals of a sunflower?s seed to the ridges of a majestic mountain range, in a compelling exhibit called Numbers in Nature. Then make your way to the Whispering Gallery to understand how sound travels in different environments. A theater and hands-on exhibits further enhance the experience.

Contact MSIChicago.org

Black Panther is featured at the ?Marvel: Universe of Super Heroes? exhibit at the Museum of Science and Industry. (Photo Antonio Perez/Chicago Tribune/TNS)

Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey, Calif.

Founded in 1984, this world-renowned organization?s mission is to inspire conservation of the world?s oceans.

Through a variety of interactive activities and exhibits designed for young children and families, your crew will learn about the delicate balance that exists in our seas today. The youngest visitors will be drawn to the 40-foot-long touch pool for an up-close look at curious creatures like sea stars, urchins, kelp crabs and abalones. You?ll all enjoy the playful antics of southern sea otters, learning about the world of mud flats and marshes, and observing a master of disguise, the Giant Pacific Octopus.

Contact MontereyBayAquarium.org

Social media content creator Patrick Webster livestreams from the Kelp Forest tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, Calif., on August 20, 2020. (Kent Nishimura/Los Angeles Times/TNS)

The Children?s Museum of Indianapolis, Indianapolis

Spreading 29 acres with more than 472,900 feet of exhibit space on five floors, this extraordinary nonprofit institution has been entertaining and educating families since 1925. Considered the largest children?s museum in the world, kids can learn about the day-to-day duties of astronauts and get inspired by the powerful stories of other children including Anne Frank, Ruby Bridges, Ryan White and Malala Yousafzai. Families are charmed by a historic carousel and inspired by exhibits that explain how plant science can help the world by cleaning up oil spills and cultivating healthy food.

Contact childrensmuseum.org

Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix

This unique museum enables families to see and experience more than 3,000 instruments and artifacts from around the world. Live performances, family-friendly festivals and a wide array of lectures and classes are available. Check out the Steinway piano on which John Lennon composed ?Imagine? as well as the instruments of Eric Clapton, Carlos Santana and George Benson. Wireless headsets allow guests to see and hear exhibits throughout the museum. Kids will enjoy the Experience Gallery, where they can touch, play and hear instruments from far away cultures. Check out their extensive and diverse concert schedule.

Contact TheMim.org

? Tribune News Service

) [summary] => Supercharge your family?s brain power with a visit to these dynamic destinations. Here are five compelling places to consider. U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, Ala.. Do you have what it takes to be a space explorer? Visit this other-worldly technology center to experience the Discovery Shuttle simulator, feel three times the force of gravity ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Supercharge your family?s brain power with a visit to these dynamic destinations. Here are five compelling places to consider.

U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, Ala..

Do you have what it takes to be a space explorer? Visit this other-worldly technology center to experience the Discovery Shuttle simulator, feel three times the force of gravity in the G-Force Accelerator and to peruse one of the largest collections of rockets and space memorabilia on display anywhere in the world.

You can also discover what it takes to be among the world?s great record holders. Check out the center?s latest traveling exhibition, The Science of Guinness World Records, to uncover the stories of those whose talent and tenacity enabled them to best the longest, farthest, deepest, highest records on the planet.

Contact rocketcenter.com

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

Encouraging curiosity and celebrating questions, this is the place to see a German submarine, understand how tornadoes and avalanches happen and explore the structure of the eye in a hands-on lab environment.

Discover the mathematical patterns that surround us every day in the natural world ? from the delicate, nested spirals of a sunflower?s seed to the ridges of a majestic mountain range, in a compelling exhibit called Numbers in Nature. Then make your way to the Whispering Gallery to understand how sound travels in different environments. A theater and hands-on exhibits further enhance the experience.

Contact MSIChicago.org

Black Panther is featured at the ?Marvel: Universe of Super Heroes? exhibit at the Museum of Science and Industry. (Photo Antonio Perez/Chicago Tribune/TNS)

Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey, Calif.

Founded in 1984, this world-renowned organization?s mission is to inspire conservation of the world?s oceans.

Through a variety of interactive activities and exhibits designed for young children and families, your crew will learn about the delicate balance that exists in our seas today. The youngest visitors will be drawn to the 40-foot-long touch pool for an up-close look at curious creatures like sea stars, urchins, kelp crabs and abalones. You?ll all enjoy the playful antics of southern sea otters, learning about the world of mud flats and marshes, and observing a master of disguise, the Giant Pacific Octopus.

Contact MontereyBayAquarium.org

Social media content creator Patrick Webster livestreams from the Kelp Forest tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, Calif., on August 20, 2020. (Kent Nishimura/Los Angeles Times/TNS)

The Children?s Museum of Indianapolis, Indianapolis

Spreading 29 acres with more than 472,900 feet of exhibit space on five floors, this extraordinary nonprofit institution has been entertaining and educating families since 1925. Considered the largest children?s museum in the world, kids can learn about the day-to-day duties of astronauts and get inspired by the powerful stories of other children including Anne Frank, Ruby Bridges, Ryan White and Malala Yousafzai. Families are charmed by a historic carousel and inspired by exhibits that explain how plant science can help the world by cleaning up oil spills and cultivating healthy food.

Contact childrensmuseum.org

Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix

This unique museum enables families to see and experience more than 3,000 instruments and artifacts from around the world. Live performances, family-friendly festivals and a wide array of lectures and classes are available. Check out the Steinway piano on which John Lennon composed ?Imagine? as well as the instruments of Eric Clapton, Carlos Santana and George Benson. Wireless headsets allow guests to see and hear exhibits throughout the museum. Kids will enjoy the Experience Gallery, where they can touch, play and hear instruments from far away cultures. Check out their extensive and diverse concert schedule.

Contact TheMim.org

? Tribune News Service

[date_timestamp] => 1638085578 ) [9] => Array ( [title] => A Seasonal Emerald in the Sahel [link] => https://movs.world/space/a-seasonal-emerald-in-the-sahel/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Susan Hally ) [pubdate] => Sun, 28 Nov 2021 05:10:14 +0000 [category] => SpaceEmeraldSahelseasonal [guid] => https://movs.world/space/a-seasonal-emerald-in-the-sahel/ [description] => It is one of the world?s most productive wetlands, even though it is mostly dry for nearly half of each year. Depending on the abundance and timing of rainfall upstream, the inland delta of the Niger River in Mali typically floods with water from roughly August to December. The result is a seasonal burst of ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

It is one of the world?s most productive wetlands, even though it is mostly dry for nearly half of each year. Depending on the abundance and timing of rainfall upstream, the inland delta of the Niger River in Mali typically floods with water from roughly August to December. The result is a seasonal burst of green vegetation at the intersection of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel.

Inland deltas generally occur where rivers split and branch out across inland depressions, valleys, or former lake beds, often in arid areas. According to geomorphologist and NASA Earth scientist Justin Wilkinson, there are at least 86 inland deltas?sometimes referred to as megafans?spread across Africa. The Inland Niger Delta is the largest in western Africa.

The waters that bathe this delta originate in the Guinea Highlands, where wet season rains usually start to fall in July and then wind their way northeast into Mali on the Niger River. Upon reaching the southern reaches of the Inland Niger Delta, the waters spread out across floodplains and swamps full of reeds and wetland grasses (particularly bourgou). The northern portion of the delta is full of branching sand ridges and drying stream channels that emerge from the wetlands as the season progresses.

The progression of this greenup is shown in the natural-color images above from May, August, and November 2021. Each image is a monthly composite view built from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA?s Aqua satellite. (The composite approach allows a cloud-free view in a region that can often be cloudy.) The image below, acquired on November 16, 2021, by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8, shows a closeup of the sand ridges in the northern half of the delta.

The Niger River runs more than 500 kilometers (300 miles) across the flatlands and channels of the inland delta before merging again and continuing into Niger, Benin, and Nigeria. By the time the seasonal pulses of river water reach the northeast part of the delta, water levels are usually dropping in the southwestern part. Wilkinson added that the greenup occurs in the ?active lobe? of the megafan delta, which is actually twice as large as the area shown above.

The waters in portions of the river and delta can rise and fall by as much as 6 meters (20 feet) from dry season to wet season and back. Wilkinson noted that nearly 60 percent of the river?s discharge is lost along the way to evaporation in the delta and to absorption by the wetland soils and the plants that thrive here seasonally.

Birds, fish, and other wildlife flock to this area in the flood season, including West African manatees. At least one million people draw a livelihood from the inland delta through fishing, rice farming, and livestock herding and grazing.

NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens, using data from the Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive & Distribution System (LAADS) and Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE), Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Story by Michael Carlowicz.

) [summary] => It is one of the world?s most productive wetlands, even though it is mostly dry for nearly half of each year. Depending on the abundance and timing of rainfall upstream, the inland delta of the Niger River in Mali typically floods with water from roughly August to December. The result is a seasonal burst of ... Read more [atom_content] =>

It is one of the world?s most productive wetlands, even though it is mostly dry for nearly half of each year. Depending on the abundance and timing of rainfall upstream, the inland delta of the Niger River in Mali typically floods with water from roughly August to December. The result is a seasonal burst of green vegetation at the intersection of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel.

Inland deltas generally occur where rivers split and branch out across inland depressions, valleys, or former lake beds, often in arid areas. According to geomorphologist and NASA Earth scientist Justin Wilkinson, there are at least 86 inland deltas?sometimes referred to as megafans?spread across Africa. The Inland Niger Delta is the largest in western Africa.

The waters that bathe this delta originate in the Guinea Highlands, where wet season rains usually start to fall in July and then wind their way northeast into Mali on the Niger River. Upon reaching the southern reaches of the Inland Niger Delta, the waters spread out across floodplains and swamps full of reeds and wetland grasses (particularly bourgou). The northern portion of the delta is full of branching sand ridges and drying stream channels that emerge from the wetlands as the season progresses.

The progression of this greenup is shown in the natural-color images above from May, August, and November 2021. Each image is a monthly composite view built from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA?s Aqua satellite. (The composite approach allows a cloud-free view in a region that can often be cloudy.) The image below, acquired on November 16, 2021, by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8, shows a closeup of the sand ridges in the northern half of the delta.

The Niger River runs more than 500 kilometers (300 miles) across the flatlands and channels of the inland delta before merging again and continuing into Niger, Benin, and Nigeria. By the time the seasonal pulses of river water reach the northeast part of the delta, water levels are usually dropping in the southwestern part. Wilkinson added that the greenup occurs in the ?active lobe? of the megafan delta, which is actually twice as large as the area shown above.

The waters in portions of the river and delta can rise and fall by as much as 6 meters (20 feet) from dry season to wet season and back. Wilkinson noted that nearly 60 percent of the river?s discharge is lost along the way to evaporation in the delta and to absorption by the wetland soils and the plants that thrive here seasonally.

Birds, fish, and other wildlife flock to this area in the flood season, including West African manatees. At least one million people draw a livelihood from the inland delta through fishing, rice farming, and livestock herding and grazing.

NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens, using data from the Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive & Distribution System (LAADS) and Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE), Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Story by Michael Carlowicz.

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